Controversies between sovereign states that are not settled by diplomatic negotiation or conciliation are often referred, by agreement of both parties, to the decision of a third disinterested party, who arbitrates the dispute with binding force upon the disputant parties. Such arbitration between states has a long history; it was used between city-states in ancient Greece and also in the Middle Ages, when the pope often acted as the sole arbitrator.
The modern development of international arbitration can be traced to the Jay Treaty (1794) between Great Britain and the United States, which established three arbitral commissions to settle questions and claims arising out of the American Revolution. In the 19th century, many arbitral agreements were concluded by which ad hoc arbitration tribunals were established to deal with specific cases or to handle a great number of claims. Most significant was the Alabama claims arbitration under the Treaty of Washington (1871), by which the United States and Great Britain agreed to settle claims arising from the failure of Great Britain to maintain its neutrality during the American Civil War.
Commissions consisting of members drawn from both disputant countries (“mixed arbitral commissions”) often were used in the 19th century to settle pecuniary claims for the compensation of injuries to aliens for which justice could not be obtained in foreign courts. Such was the purpose of a convention in 1868 between the United States and Mexico, by which claims of citizens of each country arising from the Civil War were settled. Boundary disputes between states were also often settled by arbitration.
International arbitration was given a more permanent basis by the Hague Conference of 1899, which adopted the Hague Convention on the pacific settlement of international disputes, revised by a conference in 1907. The convention stated:
International arbitration has for its object the settlement of disputes between States by judges of their own choice and on the basis of respect for law. Recourse to arbitration implies an engagement to submit in good faith to the award.
A Permanent Court of Arbitration, composed of a panel of jurists appointed by the member governments, from which the litigant governments select the arbitrators, was established at The Hague in 1899.
Members of the Permanent Court of Arbitration.
Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.
Twenty cases were arbitrated between 1902 and 1932, but from that year until 1972 only five cases were dealt with, largely because the importance of the Permanent Court of Arbitration was diminished by the establishment of the Permanent Court of Justice (1922) and its successor, the International Court of Justice. More recently, the International Court of Arbitration (established in 1923), which was originally devised for the settlement of disputes between states, has offered its services for the arbitration of controversies between states and individuals or corporations. By the beginning of the 21st century, the court had arbitrated more than 10,000 disputes.
Arbitration provisions of international treaties
There are several multilateral treaties that provide for the settlement of international disputes by arbitration, including the Geneva General Act for the Settlement of Disputes of 1928, adopted by the League of Nationsand reactivated by the UN General Assembly in 1949. That act provides for the settlement of various disputes, after unsuccessful efforts at conciliation, by an arbitral tribunal of five members. Other such treaties include the General Treaty of Inter-American Arbitration, signed in Washington, D.C., in 1929, and the American Treaty on Pacific Settlement of Disputes, signed in Bogotá, Colom., in 1948. The Council of Europe adopted the European Convention for the Peaceful Settlement of Disputes (1957). Arbitration is also mentioned as a proper method of settling disputes between countries in the Charter of the United Nations, as it was in the Covenant of the League of Nations.
The UN’s International Law Commission submitted to the General Assembly in 1955 a Convention on Arbitral Procedure. Its model rules would not become binding on any UN member-state unless they were accepted by a state in an arbitration treaty or in a special arbitral agreement. However, the model rules were not adopted in any arbitration arrangement between disputant governments, though in 1958 the General Assembly recommended the model rules for use by member-states when appropriate. It seems clear that states prefer flexibility in the resolution of their disputes by arranging the rules and proceedings of an arbitration according to circumstances.
There are great impediments to the acceptance of international arbitration, especially in cases in which disputes between governments and foreign private parties are involved. In such cases the state will often insist that its own local remedies—administrative and court proceedings—have been exhausted. Generally, the government of the national who advances a claim against a foreign government will require evidence that the injured party has pursued all remedies in the foreign country before it presses a claim for international negotiation and adjudication. Contracting parties may agree in their contract that they need not exhaust local remedies before resorting to arbitration. The Convention on the Settlement of Investment Disputes (1965) states:
Consent of the parties to arbitration under this Convention shall, unless otherwise stated, be deemed consent to such arbitration to the exclusion of any other remedy. A Contracting State may require the exhaustion of local administrative or judicial remedies as a condition of its consent to arbitration under this Convention.
The arbitration agreement in a general multilateral treaty, a bilateral convention, or a specific contractual arrangement between two states often does not deal with particulars, such as the selection and appointment of the arbitrators, the procedure to be followed in the arbitration, the subject matter of the dispute, the specific issues to be submitted, the presentation of evidence, the place of the hearings, the law to be applied by the arbitrators, and the time when the award has to be rendered. These questions usually are dealt with in a compromis, a submission agreement between the parties to the dispute. If the compromis fails in some particular (e.g., to define the applicable law), the arbitrator generally applies the relevant principles of international law.
An award rendered by an arbitral tribunal is customarily complied with by states. In fact, unless a state is prepared to comply with an adverse decision, it generally will not submit the dispute to arbitration. The difficulties in the use of international arbitration thus consist less in the enforcement of arbitral awards than in persuading states involved in disputes to submit them to arbitration.